Launch Demo 2 | LauncherOne

Launch Lift Off Time
(Subject to change)
January 17, 2021 18:30 UTC | 10:30 AM PST
Mission Name
Demo-2, the launch of NASA’s Venture Class Launch Services (VCLS) satellites
Launch Provider
(What rocket company is launching it?)
Virgin Orbit
(Who’s paying for this?)
Launch Location
Various. Cosmic Girl lifts off from Mojave Air and Spaceport in California
Payload mass
115 kg (253 lbs)
Where are the satellites going?
Low Earth Orbit
Will they be attempting to recover the first stage?
No, this is not a capability of Virgin Orbit
Where will the first stage land?
It will crash into the Pacific Ocean
Will they be attempting to recover the fairings?
No, this is not a capability of Virgin Orbit
Are these fairings new?
How’s the weather looking?
It varies per location. Reported as “favorable” by Virgin Orbit on Twitter.
This will be the:
– 2nd test flight of LauncherOne
– 1st flight for Virgin Orbit in 2021
– 1st time Virgin Orbit flies a commercial payload

Cosmic Girl’s 8,338th flight all-time
Where to watch
Virgin Orbit will not be live-streaming this test. Check in on their Twitter for updates

What’s all this mean?

Following Virgin Orbit’s first orbital launch attempt, they are attempting to test their LauncherOne launch vehicle for the second time in their Launch Demo 2 mission. The goal for this test mission is to successfully launch the rocket and the accompanying 10 CubSats into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Virgin Orbit uses the air-launch method which consists of hauling the rocket up to an altitude of 10,600 m (35,000 ft) by a 747-400 before releasing the rocket.

Launch Demo 2’s Payloads

A total of 10 CubeSats will be launched on LauncherOne for the Demo-2 mission, which are all part of NASA’s Venture Class Launch Services. NASA’s VCLS is enabling the 20th Education Launch of Nanosatellites mission (ELaNa 20). This program allows students to design, build, and operate small payloads to learn and conduct their own experiments. So far over 250 students have been reached with many more to follow.


CACTUS-1 consists of two 3U CubeSats built by undergraduate students from the Capitol Technology University, Laurel, Maryland. TrapSat will use aerogel to catch and collect micro debris, which has the potential to damage other spacecraft.


CAPE-3 will serve two main purposes. First it will enable grade-school students to access the satellite and perform an experiment in a simple way: a ground-station that can be self-assembled. Once the ground station is connected to the network, it can be accessed via a cellphone. After that, students can preform their own experiments and gather their own data. The satellites secondary function is Earth imagery and radiation detection.


ExoCube-2 aims to monitor and study atomic and ionic substances in the exosphere to better understand how they might affect space weather and satellite communications. To do this, ExoCube-2 will measure the density of hydrogen, oxygen, helium, and nitrogen.


MiTEE aims to demonstrate the electrodymic teather technology which will enable the linking of these tiny satellites, which will be cheaper to launch, but still be able to preform accurate Earth and space weather observations. These satellites are called pico and femtosats and will work together as part of a large network.


Consisting of a pair of CubeSats, PICs will assist other satellites with repair and maintenance while being able to return images of other satellites to Earth via a flyaway probe. The probe will safely take images of the satellite from all angles. Once these satellites are proven, they will be integrated onto larger satellites which will deploy them when necessary to take those external images.


Using its small radiometer and in combination with the SMAP satellite launched in 2015, PolarCube will observe Earths poles’ ice sheets and collect atmosphereic temperature data.


This three-year mission will aim to study the outcomes and physics of microgravity collisions. Starting on a centimeter and smaller scale, Q-PACE will observe the early disk and particle clustering the begins in the early stages of celestial body formation.


The main goals of RadFXSat-2 are to observe the effects on various microelectronics, such as RAM, from solar radiation. All of the data from this short experiment will be transmitted by way of amateur radio, a low-cost way of communications.


This satellite will test new CubeSat technology by using the “ExoBrake” when it re-enters the atmosphere after 60 days in orbit. The goal is to decrease satellite reentry time from a 500 km (310 miles) orbit from years to just 6-8 months. Researchers try to achieve that by using a high-efficiency drag device.

Launch Demo 2’s launch sequence

After Cosmic Girl reaches 10,600 m (35,000 ft) of altitude, the pilots pitch the plane upwards at a 27° angle. Then, controllers give the launch command (hitting the Big Red Button) from the “first-class” Mission Control. This triggers the launch sequence that ensures that there is no accidental jettison prior to the actual commanded launch.


The red pylon contains 3 hooks that detach from the rocket, letting the rocket fall. After about three seconds of free-fall, the propellant settling thrusters ignite, followed by the NewtonThree engine firing. After a few minutes, it has increased its velocity to about 12,870 km/h (~8,000 mph). The first stage then separates from the second and breaks up in the atmosphere following a balistic trajectory. 

Stage Separation

Shortly after stage separation, the second stage’s NewtonFour Engine ignites. It propels the payload the rest of the way to orbit. Depending on the flight profile and mission, the second stage will perform two or three burns for a controlled deorbit, or to increase performance. Once the rocket is out of the thickest parts the atmosphere, the fairing halves will separate and fall back into the ocean, since they are no longer needed to protect the payload.


LauncherOne is comprised of two stages. To start off, the first stage which houses RP-1 or rocket fuel and liquid oxygen or LOX. These two will mix and power the single NewtonThree engine, which is capable of 327 kN (73,500 lbf) of thrust. Near the fins of the engine, there are two Propellant Settling Thrusters (PSTs) and they do exactly what you would expect. They ignite just seconds before the NewtonThree engine does, to force the propellants to the bottom of the tank so the engine doesn’t take in any air. This is not commonly seen on the first stages of liquid-fueled rockets, since they take off vertically. However, they are very common and almost necessary on the proceeding stages.

Notice to the left and right of the red engine cover. There are two teeth looking objects mounted to the fin can, those are the PSTs. (Credit: Virgin Orbit)

The second stage is much smaller and has a single NewtonFour engine, which is also propelled by RP-1 and LOX. This engine has the capability to relight and can only produce 22 kN (5,000 lbf) of thrust. The difference between each engine is minimal since LauncherOne is already at around 10,600 m when its first stage ignites. Therefore both engines need to have a larger engine bell than if they were at sea level.

Expanded LauncherOne rocket with stage descriptions (Credit: Virgin Orbit)

How does LauncherOne compare to other rockets?

The only other place where one might find a set of events similar to LauncherOne’s is Northrop Grumman’s Pegasus launcher, which also starts underneath a plane. In particular, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar aircraft named Stargazer. Pegasus has launched a total of 44 times with 39 total successes.

How do Pegasus and LauncherOne differ?

Visually, they are both fairly similar. They have the familiar rocket shape (flamey end and a pointy end) and both have fins. However, Pegasus has a wing near the midsection of the rocket. This is for enhanced stability specific to the structure of Pegasus.

First Stage Engines11
Payload Capacity (LEO)500 kg (1100 lb)443 kg (977 lb)
Launch PlatformBoeing 747-400 (Cosmic Girl)Lockheed L-1011 TriStar (Stargazer)
Liftoff LocationMojave Air and Spaceport, CaliforniaVaries (Florida, California, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans)
LauncherOne before being mounted to Cosmic Girl (Credit: Virgin Orbit)
Pegasus mounted underneath the NASA B-52 before liftoff (Credit: NASA)

Why Air-Launch?

The ability to air-launch is a tremendous advantage for multiple reasons. If the weather is bad in one area, the plane can fly to another area with calmer skies. Some other advantages include a reduced amount of fuel, an altitude and velocity increase, which will already have taken it out of the denser parts of the atmosphere.

However, there is one major disadvantage. Weight. Because Cosmic Girl can only carry so much weight, and fuel is heavy, Virgin Orbit reduced the payload’s weight. That means the maximum payload to LEO is 500 kg and to Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO) is 300 kg.

Cosmic Girl ascending to altitude before release of LauncherOne (Credit: Virgin Orbit)

On the other hand, this weight limitation does not impede Virgin Orbit’s principal mission. Their goal is to make space available to everyone. Since the CubeSat industry is expanding, there is room for yet another launch vehicle in the small sat launcher class. They will be capable of providing a cheaper way to launch small satellites for universities and STEM programs. 

What happened to the first test flight?

On May 24, 2020 Virgin Orbit attempted their first ever flight over the Pacific Ocean. The hours leading up to the flight were right on schedule as the Virgin Orbit team worked through each step of the checklist to proceed to their flight time. Cosmic Girl took off from Mojave Air and Spaceport in California and climbed to its cruising altitude of 10,600 m (35,000 ft).

LauncherOne was released and performed its 4 second free fall perfectly. However, at about 5 seconds after ignition, an automatic abort was triggered causing the NewtonThree engine to shutdown. The failure was caused by rupturing of the LOX feedline, which feeds liquid oxygen to the NewtonThree engine. Since the last test flight, Virgin Orbit teams have matched their models to the flight hardware and made the correct modifications to ensure that this failure does not occur again.

It is very important to note that despite LauncherOne not making it into orbit, the Virgin Orbit team still gained an immense amount of data from the short flight. It was labelled a “Test Flight” for a reason, to test the different rocket systems. For Launch Demo 2, teams have reviewed the data from the first test flight and are confident that the mission will be successful.

Below is Virgin Orbit’s video recap of their first test mission:

(Credit: Virgin Orbit)
    1. I’ll start this off by saying that there are many many factors that contribute to launching a payload. I am going to assume that you mean the cost for the launch provider (LP) and not the customers because that can then depend on the size of the payload and its functions. The most popular method of launching a rocket is vertically, or on a launchpad. These have been around since the 60s and have proven to be extremely reliable. With the growing ability to reuse rockets, this is getting even cheaper. As we have seen in the past, vertically launched rockets can get insanely big and sadly due to weight limitations this is not possible for air launch. As stated in this article, you can air launch from nearly anywhere, while vertical launches are very limited. The cost of fuel can get extremely expensive very fast, so using a smaller, air-launch rocket which uses less fuel, you’ve already saved some money there. However, the biggest money saver is the cost of the surrounding support equipment. This article gives a great look at what some of the most influential and expensive factors are for vertically launches rockets. The launchpad for air launch is just a plane, which is much cheaper than a full-blown launch pad. The University of Colorado did a report on various different launch methods and their pros and cons, learn more here: Hopefull that helped and let us know if you have any other questions.

  1. Love these launch overviews. One small correction, on RadFxSat-2 comms are via Amateur Radio and not Mature Radio. This is based on a long partnership between Vanderbilt and AMSAT to reliablly get their data down to the ground. If you like such things you can receive and decode the data yourself using the FoxTelem decoder.

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