Featured image credit: SpaceX
Lift Off Time
|September 11, 2022 – 01:20 UTC|
September 10, 2022 – 21:20 EDT
|Starlink Group 4-2 & BlueWalker 3; the 26th launch to Starlink Shell 4, and a ridesharing spacecraft|
|Falcon 9 Block 5, B1058-14; 65.51 day turnaround time|
|Launch Complex 39A (LC-39A), Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA|
|Starlink: ~10,450 kg (~23,150 lb) (34 x ~307 kg, plus dispenser)|
BlueWalker 3: ~1,500 kg
Where did the satellites go?
Starlink Shell 4; 540 km circular low-Earth orbit (LEO); initial orbit: 334 x 324 km low-Earth orbit at 53.21 degrees
BlueWalker 3; initial orbit: same as Starlink
Did they attempt to recover the first stage?
Where did the first stage land?
|Downrange on A Shortfall of Gravitas|
Tug: Bob; Support: Bob
Did they attempt to recover the fairings?
|The fairing halves were recovered from the water by SpaceX’s recovery vessel Bob|
Were these fairings new?
|No, both fairing halves were flight proven|
This was the:
|– 175th Falcon 9 launch|
– 113th Falcon 9 flight with a flight-proven booster
– 117th re-flight of a booster
– 39th re-flight of a booster in 2022
– 141st booster landing
– 67th consecutive landing (a record)
– 41st launch for SpaceX in 2022 (a record)
– 54th SpaceX launch from LC-39A
– 115th orbital launch attempt of 2022
– 2nd Starlink mission with rideshares of 2022
Where to watch
What’s This All Mean?
SpaceX’s long-awaited Starlink Group 4-2 mission successfully launched 34 Starlink internet communication satellites and the BlueWalker 3 — a ridesharing communication satellite — atop a Falcon 9 rocket. The Falcon 9 lifted off from Launch Complex 39A, at the Kennedy Space Center, in Florida, USA. Starlink Group 4-2 marked the 59th operational Starlink mission, boosting the total number of Starlink satellites launched to 3,293, of which ~3,025 are still in Orbit. Starlink group 4-2 marked the 26th launch to the fourth shell of Starlink; roughly 35 launches will be required to fill Shell 4.
What Is BlueWalker 3?
The BlueWalker 3 satellite is a prototype communication satellite built and operated by AST & Sciences. The satellite will be able to test AST & Science’s ability to connect to cellphones in a space environment, which they have planned in their upcoming SpaceMobile constellation. This constellation will join Global Star’s constellation that can connect to the newly announced iPhone 14 cellular devices in case of emergency. Additionally, SpaceX and T-Mobile have announced the ability for the second generation of Starlink (dubbed Starlink v2) satellites to act as cell towers, enabling texting and calling anywhere in the world.
The BlueWalker 3 satellite has a mass of 1,500 kg and will deploy a 10-meter diameter antenna. This is smaller than the eventual SpaceMobile satellites will be, but a large antenna is needed to pick up the relatively weak satellite signal of a phone from orbit. The satellite is powered by solar cells and has several batteries to pass through the orbital night.
Starlink is SpaceX’s internet communication satellite constellation. The low-Earth orbit constellation will deliver fast, low-latency internet service to locations where ground-based internet is unreliable, unavailable, or expensive. The first phase of the constellation consists of five orbital shells.
Starlink is currently available in certain regions, allowing anyone in approved regions to order or preorder. After 28 launches SpaceX achieved near-global coverage, but the constellation will not be complete until ~42,000 satellites are in orbit. Once Starlink is complete, the venture is expected to profit $30-50 billion annually. This profit will largely finance SpaceX’s ambitious Starship program, as well as Mars Base Alpha.
Each Starlink V1.5 satellite has a compact design and a mass of 307 kg. SpaceX developed a flat-panel design, allowing them to fit as many satellites as possible into the Falcon 9’s 5.2-meter wide payload fairing. Due to this flat design, SpaceX is able to fit up to 60 Starlink satellites and the payload dispenser into the second stage, while still being able to recover the first stage. This is near the recoverable payload capacity of the Falcon 9 to LEO, around 16 tonnes.
As small as each Starlink satellite is, each one is packed with high-tech communication and cost-saving technology. Each Starlink satellite is equipped with four phased array antennas, for high bandwidth and low-latency communication, and two parabolic antennas. The satellites also include a star tracker, which provides the satellite with attitude data, ensuring precision in broadband communication.
Each Starlink V1.5 satellite is also equipped with an inter-satellite laser communication system. This allows each satellite to communicate directly with other satellites, not having to go through ground stations. This reduces the number of ground stations needed, allowing coverage of the entire Earth’s surface, including the poles.
The Starlink satellites are also equipped with an autonomous collision avoidance system, which utilizes the US Department of Defense (DOD) debris tracking database to autonomously avoid collisions with other spacecraft and space junk.
To decrease costs, each satellite has a single solar panel, which simplifies the manufacturing process. To further cut costs, Starlink’s propulsion system, an ion thruster, uses krypton as fuel, instead of xenon. While the specific impulse (ISP) of krypton is significantly lower than xenon’s, it is far cheaper, which further decreases the satellite’s manufacturing cost.
Each Starlink satellite is equipped with the first Hall-effect krypton-powered ion thruster. This thruster is used for both ensuring the correct orbital position, as well as for orbit raising and orbit lowering. At the end of the satellite’s life, this thruster is used to deorbit the satellite.
A satellite constellation is a group of satellites that work in conjunction for a common purpose. Currently, SpaceX plans to form a network of 11,716 satellites; however, in 2019 SpaceX filed an application with the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) for permission to launch and operate an additional 30,000 satellites as part of Phase 2 of Starlink. To put this number of satellites into perspective, this is roughly 20 times more satellites than were launched before 2019.
Of the initial ~12,000 satellites, ~4,400 would operate on the Ku and Ka bands, with the other ~7,600 operating on the V-Band.
Due to the vast number of Starlink satellites, many astronomers are concerned about their effect on the night sky. However, SpaceX is working with the astronomy community and implementing changes to the satellites to make them harder to see from the ground and less obtrusive to the night sky. SpaceX has changed how the satellites raise their orbits and, starting on Starlink V1.0 L9, added a sunshade to reduce light reflectivity. These changes have already significantly decreased the effect of Starlink on the night sky.
|Inclination (°)||Orbital Altitude (km)||Number of Satellites|
The first orbital shell of Starlink satellites consists of 1,584 satellites in a 53.0° 550 km low-Earth orbit. Shell 1 consists of 72 orbital planes, with 22 satellites in each plane. This shell is currently near complete, with occasional satellites being replaced. The first shell provides coverage between roughly 52° and -52° latitude (~80% of the Earth’s surface), and will not feature laser links until replacement satellites launch.
Starlink’s second shell will host 720 satellites in a 70° 570 km orbit. These satellites will significantly increase the coverage area, which will make the Starlink constellation cover around 94% of the globe. SpaceX will put 20 satellites in each of the 36 planes in the third shell. This shell is currently being filled, along with Shell 4.
Shell 3 will consist of 348 satellites in a 97.6° 560 km orbit. SpaceX deployed 10 laser link test satellites into this orbit on their Transporter-1 mission to test satellites in a polar orbit. SpaceX launched an additional three satellites to this shell on the Transporter-2 mission. On April 6, 2021, Gwynne Shotwell said that SpaceX will conduct regular polar Starlink launches in the summer, but this shell is now the lowest priority and is expected to be the last filled. All satellites that will be deployed into this orbit will have inter-satellite laser link communication. Shell 3 will have six orbital planes with 58 satellites in each plane.
The fourth shell will consist of 1,584 satellites in a 53.2° 540 km LEO. This updated orbital configuration will slightly increase the coverage area and will drastically increase the bandwidth of the constellation. This shell will also consist of 72 orbital planes with 22 satellites in each plane. This shell is currently being filled alongside Shell 2.
The final shell of Phase 1 of Starlink will host 172 satellites in another 97.6° 560 km low-Earth polar orbit. Shell 5 will also consist purely of satellites with laser communication links; however, unlike Shell 3, it will consist of four orbital planes with 43 satellites in each plane.
The sixth orbital shell of Starlink satellites is permitted to consist of 2,493 satellites in a 42° 335.9 km LEO. This large number of satellites will decrease latency and increase bandwidth for lower latitudes.
The seventh Starlink shell permits SpaceX to deploy 2,478 satellites into a 48° 340.8 km low-Earth orbit. These satellites will further decrease latency and increase bandwidth for lower latitudes.
The final shell of Starlink Phase 2 allows SpaceX to deploy 2,547 satellites in a 53° 345.6 km orbit.
SpaceX has until March of 2024 to complete half of Phase 1 and must fully complete Phase 1 by March of 2027. Phase 2 must be half complete by November of 2024, and be finished by November of 2027. Failure to do so could result in SpaceX losing its dedicated frequency band.
What Is Falcon 9 Block 5?
The Falcon 9 Block 5 is SpaceX’s partially reusable two-stage medium-lift launch vehicle. The vehicle consists of a reusable first stage, an expendable second stage, and, when in payload configuration, a pair of reusable fairing halves.
The Falcon 9 first stage contains 9 Merlin 1D+ sea level engines. Each engine uses an open gas generator cycle and runs on RP-1 and liquid oxygen (LOx). Each engine produces 845 kN of thrust at sea level, with a specific impulse (ISP) of 285 seconds, and 934 kN in a vacuum with an ISP of 313 seconds. Due to the powerful nature of the engine, and the large amount of them, the Falcon 9 first stage is able to lose an engine right off the pad, or up to two later in flight, and be able to successfully place the payload into orbit.
The Merlin engines are ignited by triethylaluminum and triethylborane (TEA-TEB), which instantaneously burst into flames when mixed in the presence of oxygen. During static fire and launch the TEA-TEB is provided by the ground service equipment. However, as the Falcon 9 first stage is able to propulsively land, three of the Merlin engines (E1, E5, and E9) contain TEA-TEB canisters to relight for the boost back, reentry, and landing burns.
The Falcon 9 second stage is the only expendable part of the Falcon 9. It contains a singular MVacD engine that produces 992 kN of thrust and an ISP of 348 seconds. The second stage is capable of doing several burns, allowing the Falcon 9 to put payloads in several different orbits.
For missions with many burns and/or long coasts between burns, the second stage is able to be equipped with a mission extension package. When the second stage has this package it has a grey strip, which helps keep the RP-1 warm, an increased number of composite-overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) for pressurization control, and additional TEA-TEB.
Falcon 9 Booster
The booster that supported the Starlink Group 4-2 mission is B1058, which had supported 13 previous flights. Hence, its designation for this mission was B1058-14; this changed to B1058-15 upon successful landing.
|B1052’s missions||Launch Date (UTC)||Turnaround Time (Days)|
|SpX-DM2||May 05, 2020 – 19:22||N/A|
|ANASIS-II||July 07, 2020 – 21:30||51.09|
|Starlink L12||October 06, 2020 – 11:29||77.58|
|CRS-21||December 06, 2020 – 16:17||61.20|
|Transporter-1||January 24, 2021 – 15:00||48.95|
|Starlink L20||March 11, 2021 – 08:13||45.72|
|Starlink L23||April 07, 2021 – 16:34||27.35|
|Starlink L26||May 15, 2021 – 22:56||38.27|
|Starlink Group 4-1||November 13, 2021 – 12:19||181.56|
|Transporter-3||January 13, 2022 – 15:25||61.13|
|Starlink Group 4-8||February 21, 2022 – 14:44||38.97|
|Starlink Group 4-17||May 06, 2022 – 09:42||73.79|
|Starlink Group 4-21||July 07, 2022 – 13:11||62.15|
|Starlink Group 4-2 & BlueWalker 3||September 11, 2022 – 01:20||65.51|
Following stage separation, the Falcon 9 conducted two burns. These burns softly touched down the booster on SpaceX’s autonomous spaceport drone ship A Shortfall of Gravitas.
Falcon 9 Fairings
The Falcon 9’s fairing consists of two dissimilar reusable halves. The first half (the half that faces away from the transport erector) is called the active half, and houses the pneumatics for the separation system. The other fairing half is called the passive half. As the name implies, this half plays a purely passive role in the fairing separation process, as it relies on the pneumatics from the active half.
Both fairing halves are equipped with cold gas thrusters and a parafoil which are used to touch down the fairing half in the ocean softly. SpaceX used to attempt to catch the fairing halves, however, at the end of 2020, this program was canceled due to safety risks and a low success rate. On Starlink Group 4-2, SpaceX attempted to recover the fairing halves from the water with their recovery vessel Bob.
In 2021, SpaceX started flying a new version of the Falcon 9 fairing. The new “upgraded” version has vents only at the top of each fairing half, by the gap between the halves, whereas the old version had vents placed spread equidistantly around the base of the fairing. Moving the vents decreases the chance of water getting into the fairing, making the chance of a successful scoop significantly higher.
All times are approximate
|00:38:00||SpaceX Launch Director verifies go for propellant load|
|00:35:00||RP-1 (rocket grade kerosene) loading underway|
|00:35:00||1st stage LOx (liquid oxygen) loading underway|
|00:16:00||2nd stage LOx loading underway|
|00:07:00||Falcon 9 begins engine chill prior to launch|
|00:01:00||Command flight computer to begin final prelaunch checks|
|00:01:00||Propellant tank pressurization to flight pressure begins|
|00:00:45||SpaceX Launch Director verifies go for launch|
|00:00:03||Engine controller commands engine ignition sequence to start|
|00:00:00||Falcon 9 liftoff|
All times are approximate
|00:01:12||Max Q (moment of peak mechanical stress on the rocket)|
|00:02:32||1st stage main engine cutoff (MECO)|
|00:02:35||1st and 2nd stages separate|
|00:02:42||2nd stage engine starts|
|00:06:17||1st stage entry burn start|
|00:07:08||1st stage entry burn complete|
|00:08:09||1st stage landing burn start|
|00:08:28||2nd stage engine cutoff (SECO-1)|
|00:08:31||1st stage landing|
|00:47:16||2nd stage engine starts (SES-2)|
|00:47:20||2nd stage engine cutoff (SECO-2)|
|00:49:51||AST SpaceMobile’s BlueWalker 3 satellite deploys|
|01:07:36||2nd stage engine starts (SES-3)|
|01:07:38||2nd stage engine cutoff (SECO-3)|
|01:53:56||2nd stage engine starts (SES-4)|
|01:54:05||2nd stage engine cutoff (SECO-4)|
|02:03:49||Starlink satellites deploy|